February 28, 2008

October 19-25

One-hundred and forty-eight years ago this week, on October 19, 1860, presidential candidate Abraham Lincoln received a letter from eleven-year-old Grace Bedell of Westfield, New York, suggesting that he grow a beard.  “You would look a great deal better for your face is so thin,” she wrote.  “All the ladies like whiskers and they would tease their husbands to vote for you and then you would be president.”[187]  Lincoln took Grace’s advice, grew his now iconic beard, but responded playfully to her letter: “As to the whiskers, having never worn any, do you not think people would call it a piece of silly affec[ta]ation if I were to begin it now?”[188]

One year later, on October 21, 1861, President and Mrs. Lincoln were grieved to learn Col. Edward Baker’s death at the Battle of Ball’s Bluff; he was a close, personal friend from Illinois, and the namesake of their second son.[189]


December 30-January 5
One-hundred and sixty-seven years ago this week, on January 1, 1841, Abraham Lincoln and Mary Todd Lincoln had an spat that caused Lincoln to be absent from his work at the Illinois state legislature for several days.  Biographers have speculated that Lincoln asked to be “released from his engagement,” but no conclusive evidence survives.[1]  On January 1, 1863, President Lincoln issued the final Emancipation Proclamation, declaring “all persons held as slaves within any State, or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.”[2]

January 6-12
One-hundred and seventy-four years ago this week, on January 6, 1834, Abraham Lincoln made his first known survey as deputy surveyor of Sangamon County in Illinois.  After mastering the art and technology of surveying, he began work on the north end of Sangamon County and was paid “two buckskins” for his first survey.[3]  On January 10, 1849, while serving in the U.S. House of

Columbia.[4]  The amendment was rejected, but 13 years later President Abraham Lincoln signed an act finally abolishing slavery in the District.  On January 11, 1862, Lincoln made Simon Cameron U.S. minister to Russia after accepting Cameron’s resignation as secretary of war.[5]

January 13-19
One-hundred and seventy-five years ago this week, on January 15, 1833, Abraham Lincoln purchased a general store in New Salem, Illinois, in joint venture with William F. Berry.  The store, Lincoln & Berry, subsequently failed within a few months, due to Berry’s debts and Lincoln practice of reading and studying behind the counter, and saddled the future president with a debt that took him many years to repay.[6]  On January 16, 1845, Lincoln purchased a five-room home at the corner of Eighth and Jackson Streets in Springfield, Illinois, for $1,500.[7]  The house, where the Lincoln’s lived for the next sixteen years, is preserved today at Lincoln Home National Historic Site.  On January 17, 1851, Abraham Lincoln’s father — Thomas Lincoln — died in Coles County, Illinois, at the age of 73.  Abraham, who had an uneasy relationship with his father, did not attend the funeral.[8]  On January 13, 1862, President Lincoln named Edwin M. Stanton secretary of war.[9]  Stanton famously remarked after Lincoln’s death three years later, “Now he belongs to the ages.”

January 13-19
One-hundred and seventy-five years ago this week, on January 15, 1833, Abraham Lincoln purchased a general store in New Salem, Illinois, in joint venture with William F. Berry.  The store, Lincoln & Berry, subsequently failed within a few months, due to Berry’s debts and Lincoln practice of reading and studying behind the counter, and saddled the future president with a debt that took him many years to repay.[6]  On January 16, 1845, Lincoln purchased a five-room home at the corner of Eighth and Jackson Streets in Springfield, Illinois, for $1,500.[7]  The house, where the Lincoln’s lived for the next sixteen years, is preserved today at Lincoln Home National Historic Site.  On January 17, 1851, Abraham Lincoln’s father — Thomas Lincoln — died in Coles County, Illinois, at the age of 73.  Abraham, who had an uneasy relationship with his father, did not attend the funeral.[8]  On January 13, 1862, President Lincoln named Edwin M. Stanton secretary of war.[9]  Stanton famously remarked after Lincoln’s death three years later, “Now he belongs to the ages.”

January 27-February 2
One-hundred and fifty-eight years ago this week, on February 1, 1850, Abraham Lincoln’s second son — Edward Baker Lincoln — died at the age of four, fifty-two days after contracting pulmonary tuberculosis.[12]  On January 31, 1861, Lincoln made his final visit to Coles County, Illinois, to see his aged stepmother, Sally Bush Lincoln.[13]  It would be her last chance to visit with the president-elect before he took the oath of office, and before his death four years later.  On January 27, 1862, fed up with General McClelland’s inaction, President Lincoln issued General War Order No. 1 and directed the Army of the Potomac to advance against Confederate forces on or before February 22 — the 130-year anniversary of George Washington’s birth.[14]  Finally, on February 1, 1865, President Lincoln signed a joint resolution of Congress to submit the 13th amendment to the U.S. Constitution to the states for consideration.  By December of that year, eight months after Lincoln’s death, the necessary number of states ratified, and the the 13th amendment officially abolished the institution of slavery in the United States.[15]

February 3-9

One-hundred and fifty-three years ago this week, on February 8, 1855, Abraham Lincoln fell fifteen votes shy of election to the United States Senate on the first ballot taken in the Illinois Statehouse.  Several ballots later, fearing the election of a Pro-Nebraska Democrat — Joel A. Matteson — in his stead, Lincoln reluctantly released his votes to Anti-Nebraska Democrat Lyman Trumbull, who subsequently won the seat.[16]  On February 4, 1861, the Confederate States of America — with representatives from South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana — organized under President Jefferson Davis and Vice President Alexander H. Stephens.  As the Confederate States prepared to publish their new constitution, Lincoln packed up his home in Springfield, readying to depart for his inauguration as president of the United States.[17]  On February 6, 1862, General Ulysses S. Grant and Flag-Officer Andrew H. Foote took Fort Henry on the Tennessee River.[18]  It was the North’s first important victory in the Western Theater.  Finally, on February 3, 1865, Abraham Lincoln conducted a peace conference on Board the River Queen with Confederate representatives Alexander H. Stephens, John A. Campbell, and Robert M. T. Hunter.  Lincoln was later convinced by his cabinet to scrap the resulting peace proposal.[19]

February 10-16

One-hundred and ninety-nine years ago this week, on February 12, 1809, Abraham Lincoln was born in a one-room, sixteen by eighteen-foot log cabin on Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville, Kentucky.[20]  On February 13, 1836, Lincoln — a Whig member of the Illinois legislature and advocate for improved public works — spoke to a large crowd in favor of building the Beardstown and Sangamon Canal.  His defense of the project — which would greatly benefit his constituents in northern Sangamon County — helped assure his 1836 reelection to the state legislature.[21]  The day before his fifty-second birthday, on February 11, 1861, President-Elect Abraham Lincoln bid farewell to Springfield from the back of his train car at the Great Western Railway Passenger Station.  A crowd braved the day’s stormy weather to hear Lincoln’s parting words.  “Today I leave you,” Lincoln told the crowd.  “I go to assume a task more difficult than that which devolved upon Washington.  Unless the great God who assisted him shall be with and aid me, I must fail; but if the same omniscient mind and almighty arm that directed and protected him shall guide and support me I shall not fail — I shall succeed.”[22]  On February 14, 1862 — two days before General Ulysses Grant captured Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River — President Lincoln issued Executive Order No. 1.  The executive order, contending that “the insurrection is believed to have culminated and to be declining,” released political prisoners held in military custody.[23]

February 17-23

One-hundred and and fifty-two years ago this week, on February 22, 1856, Abraham Lincoln guided a conference of anti-Nebraska journalists in drafting a conservative declaration that “called for restoration of the Missouri Compromise, upheld the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Act, and pledged noninterference with slavery in the states where it already existed.”[24]  The document, which also endorsed the free-soil doctrine and religious tolerance, was in line with a growing political movement that would eventually draw anti-slavery Democrats and Whigs, Free-Soilers, radical abolitionists, and natavist Know-Nothings together under the new Republican Party.[25]  Five years later, at 3 a.m. on February 23, 1861, Lincoln — the Party’s first president-elect — arrived secretly in Washington, D.C., avoiding Baltimore where an assassination plot was rumored.  Lincoln originally objected to “stealing into its capital like a thief in the night,” but eventually acquiesced.[26]  On February 20, 1862, Abraham Lincoln’s son Willie died in the White House, at age 11, after a prolonged struggle with typhoid fever.  Bursting into John Nicolay’s office, the president said, “Well Nicolay, my boy is gone — he is actually gone,” and fell to tears.[27]  Finally, on February 22, 1864, Lincoln was endorsed by the Republican National Committee to serve a second term in the White House.[28]

February 24-March 1

One-hundred and ninety-seven years ago this week, on March 1, 1811, young Abraham Lincoln and his family moved from Knob Creek Farm — his birthplace near Hodgenville, Kentucky — seeking better land in Spencer County, Indiana.[29]  Exactly 19 years later, on March 1, 1830, Lincoln’s family moved again — this time departing the state of Indiana for better pastures in Macon County, Illinois.  For a year, Lincoln — now 21-years old — helped his family establish itself in Illinois, but on March 1, 1831, Lincoln left his father’s home for good, agreeing to transport a loaded flatboat for Denton Offutt from Sangamo Town to New Orleans.[30]  On February 27, 1860, Lincoln delivered a speech at Cooper Union in New York that brought him “to the center stage of American politics” and helped propel him toward the 1860 Republican presidential nomination.[31]  The next day, Lincoln continued his “eastern political debut” with a two-week, 11-stop speaking tour of New England that introduced him to audiences in Providence and Woonsocket, Rhode Island; Dover and Exeter, New Hampshire; and Hartford, New Haven, Meriden, Norwich, and Bridgeport, Connecticut.[32]  On February 25, 1862, President Lincoln signed the Legal Tender Act, enabling the federal government — for the first time — to issue national paper currency, or “greenbacks.”  This development, along with the establishment of a national banking system a year later, helped “ensure the government’s solvency and finance the war,” and it revolutionized the U.S. banking system.[33]

March 2-8

One-hundred and forty-seven years ago this week, on March 4, 1861, Abraham Lincoln was sworn into office as the sixteenth president of the United States.  He famously concluded his first inaugural address:


We are not enemies, but friends.  We must not be enemies.  Though passion may have strained it must not break our bonds of affection.  The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.[34]

Four years later, on March 4, 1865, Lincoln delivered his second inaugural address in the midst of the Civil War.  War-wearied, but anticipating the coming peace, Lincoln said:

With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.[35]

March 9-15

One-hundred and seventy-six years ago this week, after winning the confidence of his neighbors as a store clerk in New Salem, Illinois, and gaining a reputation for “enterprise, honesty, and good humor,” Abraham Lincoln made himself a candidate for the state legislature on March 9, 1832.[36]  His primary commitments as a candidate were to improve the Sangamon River and open the region to greater commercial development.  Fourteen years later, on March 10, 1846, Abraham and Mary Todd Lincoln’s second son, Edward Baker Lincoln, was born.  He only survived to the age of three.[37]  On March 9, 1864, President Lincoln commissioned Ulysses Grant — who reassured Lincoln that he would not run for president in 1864 — lieutenant general and commander-in-chief of the armies.  Grant — revered nationally after a string of victories that began at Fort Donelson and stretched, by March of ’64, to Chattanooga and Knoxville — accepted the rank last held by General George Washington.[38]


March 16-22

One-hundred and seventy-two years ago this week, on March 16, 1836, state legislator Abraham Lincoln purchased a 47-acre tract of land from the federal government at a $1.25 per acre rate.  The land was twelve miles northwest of New Salem, Illinois, a commercial and mill village that Lincoln lived and worked in for six years.[39]  On March 20, 1861, as he dealt with the secession crisis and deliberated on whether to resupply or surrender Fort Sumter, newly-inaugurated President Lincoln was further burdened when his sons Willie and Tad came down with a severe case of the measles.[40]

March 23-29

One-hundred and seventy-two years ago this week, on March 24, 1836, Abraham Lincoln’s name was entered on the Sangamon Circuit Court record as a person of good moral character.  After several years of laboring assiduously to learn the law, this was the necessary first step toward being certified to practice.[41]  On March 23, 1865, President Lincoln joined General Ulysses S. Grant at City Point, Virginia, to take a much needed vacation and discuss what terms should end the war.[42]  Five days later, Lincoln, Grant, and General William Tecumseh Sherman — “the three pivotal Northern men of the war” — conferred aboard the River Queen to plot the end of the war.[43]

March 30-April 5

One-hundred and seventy-seven years ago this week, early in April 1831, Abraham Lincoln and John Hanks departed Macon County, Illinois, on a flatboat destined for New Orleans, Louisiana.[44]  Nearly a month later, having unloaded barrels of bacon, wheat, and corn at the port of New Orleans, Lincoln would witness the horrors of human slavery for the first time.[45]  On April 4, 1853, Mary Todd Lincoln gave birth to the couple’s fourth child, Thomas Lincoln, who Abraham — noting the child’s unusually large head and small body — nicknamed “Tad.”[46]  The start of spring was a popular time for President Abraham Lincoln to visit troops in the field throughout the American Civil War.  One-hundred and forty-six years ago this week, President Lincoln visited General McClellan and his troops in Alexandria, Virginia.[47]  The next year, having replaced McClellan, the president celebrated Tad’s 10th birthday by taking Tad and Mary Todd to visit General Joseph Hooker and his army at Falmouth, Virginia.[48]  On April 4, 1865, an elated President Lincoln and his son Tad toured the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia, one day after it was captured by the Union Army.[49]  Both Lee’s surrender to Grant and Lincoln’s death were just days in the future.


April 6-12

One-hundred and forty-seven years ago this week, on April 12, 1861, the first shots of the American Civil War were fired when Confederate forces attacked and overtook Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina.  It would be four years — to the day — before an American flag was run up at Sumter again.[50]  One year later, on April 6, 1862, General Ulysses Grant’s Union forces faced General Albert Sidney Johnston’s Confederate forces in the bloodiest battle of the war, to date, at Shiloh.  President Abraham Lincoln and the nation were shocked by the 20,000 Americans killed and wounded at Shiloh, but such figures would become commonplace during the next three years.[51]  On April 9, 1865, days after the Confederate capital of Richmond fell to Union troops, the bloody war drew nearer a close when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse.  President Lincoln was later said to have hugged Secretary of War Edwin Stanton with joy upon hearing the news.[52]  Two days later, on April 11, 1865, the president delivered his final oration from a window of the White House and discussed the complexities of reconstruction.[53]

April 13-19

One-hundred and seventy-one years ago this week, on April 15, 1837, Abraham Lincoln “rode into Springfield on a borrowed horse, with all his worldly possessions crammed into the two saddlebags.”[54]  Initially he roomed with Joshua F. Speed — who would become a great friend — and became the law partner of John T. Stuart.[55]

Twenty-four years later, in mid-April, 1861, President Lincoln mobilized the North for the Civil War.  On April 15, 1861, Lincoln issued a proclamation calling up “the Militia of the several States of the Union to the aggregate number of seventy-five thousand….”[56]  On April 19, 1861, Lincoln blockaded ports across the South.[57]  Almost one-year later, on April 16, 1862, President Lincoln signed an act prohibiting slavery in the District of Columbia.[58]

On April 14, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth during a performance of Our American Cousin in Ford’s Theater.  Lincoln was carried across the street to a house owned by William Petersen.  A crowd gathered outside as Mary sat by her dying husband, “kissing him and calling him every endearing name.”  He died at twenty-two minutes past seven on the morning of April 15.[59]  Funeral services for the president were held in the White House on April 19.

April 20-26

One-hundred and seventy-six years ago this week, on Apil 21, 1832, Abraham Lincoln was elected captain of a Sangamon County volunteer company formed to fight in the Black Hawk War.[60]  The company marched up the Rock River toward Ottawa but did not see action.[61]  Thirty-three years later, on April 20, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln’s funeral train departed Washington, D.C., and stopped during the next several days in Baltimore, Maryland; York, Harrisburg, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and New York City and Albany, New York.[62]  Ultimately, Lincoln’s funeral train — “garish, vulgar, massive, bewildering, chaotic … [and] simple, final, majestic, august” — passed seventeen hundred miles and millions of Americans.[63]

April 27-May 3

One-hundred and sixty-three years ago this week, in early May 1845, Abraham and Mary Todd Lincoln moved into their new home in Springfield, Illinois, where they would reside for the next sixteen years.[64]  One-month after departing their Springfield home for the White House, on April 27, 1861, President Lincoln enacted several controversial war measures, including the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus between Philadelphia and Washington, D.C., and the extension of the blockade over southern ports to North Carolina and Virginia.[65]  Six days later, Lincoln called up forty-two thousand additional volunteers to bolster the U.S. military.[66]  After four years of tremendous national upheaval — and Lincoln’s assassination at the hand of John Wilkes Booth — the slain president’s funeral train traveled from Buffalo, New York, to Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, to Indianapolis, Indiana, and Chicago before arriving in Lincoln’s home city of Springfield, Illinois.[67]  The president’s remains were placed in the black crepe-draped Illinois State House, where thousands of people gathered and mourned.[68]

May 4-10

One-hundred and seventy-five years ago this week, on May 7, 1833, President Andrew Jackson appointed Abraham Lincoln U.S. postmaster at New Salem.[69]  Five years later, on May 10, 1838, John Wilkes Booth — Lincoln’s future assassin — was born in Bel Air, Maryland.[70]  On May 5 and 6, 1862, President Lincoln, Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, and Secretary of the Treasury Salmon Chase took a trip to Fort Monroe in Virginia to “spur [General] McClellan to act.”[71]  Two bloody Civil War battles occured this week.  In 1863, the Confederate Army won a costly victory in the Battle of Chancellorsville, suffering 13,000 causulaties — 22% of their forces (the Union suffered 17,000 casualties).[72]  One year later, Ulysses Grant’s Union Army and Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army met in Virginia Wilderness.  The combined armies suffered nearly 25,000 casualties.[73]  On May 4, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln was layed to rest at Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, Illinois.[74]  Six day later, Confederate President Jefferson Davis was captured by Union troops in Georgia.[75]

May 11-17

One-hundred and fourty eight years ago this week, on May 16, 1860, the Republican National Convention kicked off in Chicago, Illinois.[76]  Two days later, the Convention would nominate Abraham Lincoln for president.  On May 15, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln signed legislation establishing the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which was among the first recommendations of his first inaugural address.[77]  To that point in history, the Thirty-seventh C7ngress — which created the department — was among the most productive, having enacted the conscription law, the National Banking Act,

“an internal revenue law that permanently altered the tax structure of the nastion, adopted tariff legislation that offered genuine protection to American insdustry, chartered a transcontinetnal railroad, [and] established a system of land-grant colleges….”[78]


May 18-24

One-hundred and forty-eight years ago this week, on May 16, 1860, in Chicago, Illinois, Abraham Lincoln won the Republican nomination for president over rivals William H. Seward, Salmon P. Chase, Edwin M. Stanton, and Edward Bates.[79]  Lincoln won narrowly on the third ballot after trailing through the first two.[80]  Hannibal Hamlin was selected as the Republican’s vice presidential candidate.  Two years later, on May 20, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln signed the Homestead Act, promising 160 acres of free public land to settlers “after five years’ residence and improvements.”[81]  The legislation was of enormous importance to the settling of the American west — overtime, half a million homestead families would settle eighty million acres of land.”[82]

May 25-31

One-hundred and fifty-four years ago this week, on May 30, 1854, the Kansas-Nebraska Act was signed into law by President Franklin Pierce, reenvigorating the political activities of Abraham Lincoln, who later recalled being “thunderstruck and stunned.”[83]  The Act would become the preeminent issue in the famous Lincoln-Douglas debates that would commence five months later.  Two years after Kansas-Nebraska, on May 29, 1856, Lincoln served as a presidential elector for the Republican Party at Bloomington, Illinois, and he delivered a stirring speech that rebuked efforts to establish slavery in Kansas and forbade southern disunionists from leaving the union.[84]  He drew enthusiastic applause, stamping, and cheering when he concluded,

“We will say to the southern disunionists, ‘We won’t go out of the Union and you shan’t.’ …  There is both a power and a magic in popular opinion.  To that let us now appeal; and while, in all probability, no resort to force will be needed, our moderation and forbearance will stand us in good stead when, if ever, we must make an appeal to battle and to the God of Hosts.”[85]

On May 26, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln signed an act creating the Montana Territory.[86]  Montana wouldn’t become a state until 1889, under the administration of President Benjamin Harrison.[87]

June 1-7

One-hundred and sixty years ago this week, on June 7, 1848, Congressman Abraham Lincoln attended the Whig Party’s National Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and helped nominate Zachary Taylor for president.[88]  Lincoln told friends that he supported General Taylor, “because I am satisfied we can elect him, that he would give us a whig administration, and that we can not elect any other whig.”[89]  On June 3, 1861, President Abraham Lincoln ordered thirty-days of mourning for his former political rival and recent ally for national union, Stephen A. Douglas, who died in Chicago at the age of forty-eight.[90]

June 8-14

One-hundred and forty-four years ago this week, on June 8, 1864, the Republican Party — relabeled the National Union Party during the Civil War — convened in Baltimore to nominate Abraham Lincoln for a second term as president.[91]  In an unprecedented move, the convention nominated a Democrat, Andrew Johnson of Tennessee, as Lincoln’s running mate.

June 15-21

One-hundred and sixty-eight years ago this week, on June 18, 1840, Abraham Lincoln argued his first of many cases before the Illinois Supreme Court.[92]  Sixteen years later, on June 19, 1856, Lincoln — a successful lawyer, former Illinois state legislator, and U.S. representative — received 110 votes for vice president of the United States in informal balloting at the first ever Republican National Convention.[93]  On June 18, 1857, Lincoln received the largest fee of his career — $5,000 — for successfully representing the Illinois Central Railroad in the famous McLean County Tax case.[94]

Campaigning for a seat in the U.S. Senate, in 1858, Lincoln delivered his famous “House Divided” speech 150 years ago this week.[95]  Accepting the nomination of the Illinois State Republicans, Lincoln said, “A house divided against itself cannot stand.”

I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free.  I do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to be divided.  It will become all one thing, or all the other.[96]

On June 20, 1864, President Lincoln stemmed his “intense anxiety” over the Union Army’s summer stalemate in Virginia by visiting General Ulysses S. Grant at his headquarters in City Point.[97]  According to historian Doris Kearns Goodwin, Lincoln’s interactions with the general staff and soldiers “sustained and inspired him during the troubling days ahead.”[98]


June 22-28

One-hundred and fifty-one years ago this week, on June 26, 1857, in Springfield, Illinois, Abraham Lincoln delivered his first major speech against the Supreme Court’s “erroneous” Dred Scott decions.[99]  His address was a response to Stephen Douglas, who two weeks earlier had praised Dred Scott as a decision made by “honest and conscientious” judges, and had called criticism of the court, “a deadly blow at our whole republican system of government.[100]

One-hundred and fourty-six years ago, President Abraham Lincoln worked to reconfigure his general staff.  On June 23, 1862, Lincoln traveled to New York and West Point to confer with General Winfield Scott over changes in command and strategy.[101]  He then proceeded, on June 26, 1862, to combine all federal forces in norther Virginia — those under the commands of Generals John Fremont, Nathaniel Banks, and Irvin McDowell — into the new Army of Virginia under General John Pope.[102]  The next day, June 27, Lincoln relieved General Joseph Hooker of his command over the Army of the Potomac, replacing him with General George G. Meade.[103]

On June 28, 1864, Lincoln signed legislation repealing the Fugitive Slave Law, a controversial part of the Compromise of 1850 that required runaway slaves to be returned to their masters.[104]  Lincoln had pledged, in September 1861, that “The slave of every rebel master who seeks the protection of the flag shall have it and be free.”[105]

June 29-July 5

One-hundred and forty-seven years ago this week, on July 2, 1861, President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus along the military line between New York and Washington.[106]  Two days later, on Independence Day 1861, Lincoln convened and extraordinary session of Congress and delivered a formal war message in writing, stating,

“These measures [i.e., calling up the militia, expanding the military, closing Southern ports, and suspending the writ], whether strictly legal or not, were ventured upon, under what appeared to be a popular demand, and a public necessity; trusting, then as now, that Congress would readily ratify them.”[107]

Congress did, indeed, ratify Lincoln’s early war measures.

On this week in 1862, hoping to bring the war “to a speedy and satisfactory conclusion,” President Lincoln further expanded the military by calling 300,000 volunteers into service of the Union Army.[108]  This was also a week for historic legislation.  On July 1, 1862, Lincoln approved legislation creating the nation’s first income tax — 3 percent on incomes above $600.[109]  The next day, July 2, Lincoln signed the Morrill Land Grant College Act, donating public lands to states and territories for the purpose of founding colleges for the study of agriculture and the mechanical arts.[110]  The legislation led to the eventual establishment of more than 70 colleges and universities in all 50 states.[111]

This week in 1863, Lincoln’s Army turned back the Confederate invasion of Pennsylvania with a victory at Gettysburg,[112] and General Ulysses Grant’s long siege of Vicksburg came to a close — on the fourth of July — with the surrender of Confederate General John C. Pemberton.[113]

In 1864, Lincoln pocket-vetoed the Wade-Davis Reconstruction Bill, which would have “laid down a rigid formula for  bringing seceded states back into the Union.”[114]  Lincoln also accepted the resignation of his secretary of the treasury, Salmon B. Chase.[115]

July 6-12

One-hundred and fifty-six years ago this week, on July 6, 1852, Abraham Lincoln paid tribute to his political hero, Henry Clay, delivering a eulogy in Springfield, Illinois.[116]  “Such a man the times have demanded,” said Lincoln of Clay,

“… and such, in the providence of God was given to us.  But he is gone.  Let us strive to deserve, as far a mortals may, the continued care of Divine Providence, trusting that, in future national emergencies, He will not fail to provide us the instruments of safety and security.”[117]

Ten years later, on July 8, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln traveled to Harrison’s Landing, Virginia, to meet with General George McClellan and other military leaders, and to show his support for the troops.[118]  Within days, Lincoln selected General Henry Halleck to serve as general-in-chief of all Union land forces — a position General McClellan had aspired to retake.[119]

On July 11-12, 1864, Lincoln became the first standing president to witness, first hand, a battle.  Jubal Early’s Confederate army attacked Fort Stevens on the outskirts of Washington, D.C., only to be repelled by Union forces as the president watched on.[120]  Lincoln watched from the fort’s front parapet with signal officer Asa Townsend Abbott, who later recalled that Lincoln:, “stood there with a long frock coat and plug hat on, making a very conspicuous figure….”[121]  The president descended from the parapet after a man standing near him was shot in the leg by advancing Confederates.[122]

July 13-19

One-hundred and forty-six years ago this week, on July 17, 1862, Abraham Lincoln signed the Second Confiscation Act to “punish treason and rebellion,” in part, by freeing the slaves of rebel owners that came into contact with the Union Army.[123]  On July 18, 1862, during General Grant’s long siege of Petersburg and General Sherman’s taxing operation against Atlanta, President Lincoln issued a call for 500,000 additional volunteers.[124]

On July 14, 1870, five years after the president’s death, Congress voted to grant the widowed Mary Todd Lincoln an annual pension of $3,000.  The figure was increased to $5,000 in 1882, just six months before Mrs. Lincoln died at the age of 64, on July 16, in the Springfield home of her sister.[125]  She was buried in the Lincoln tomb with her her husband and three of her four sons


July 20-26

One-hundred and fifty eight years ago this week, on July 25, 1850, Abraham Lincoln delivered a eulogy for President Zachary Taylor at City Hall in Chicago.  In the speech, Lincoln said that Taylor, who had died sixteen days earlier, was not distinguished for brilliant military maneuvers when he was a general,

… but in all, he seems rather to have conquered by the exercise of a sober and steady judgment coupled with a dogged incapacity to understand that defeat was possible….  The Presidency, even to the most experienced politicians, is no bed of roses and Gen. Taylor like others, found thorns within it.  No human being can fill that station and escape censure.  Still I hope and believe when Gen. Taylor’s official conduct shall come to be viewed in the calm light of history, he will be found to have deserved as little as any who have succeeded him. [126]

Eleven years later, on the evening of July 21, 1861, President Lincoln learned from Secretary of State William Seward that General Irvin McDowell’s army had been badly routed at Bull Run — the first major battle of the Civil War.[127]  Lincoln, having listened to firsthand reports from “terrified eyewitnesses,” did not go to bed that night.[128]

On July 26, 1926 — more than sixty years after President Lincoln’s death — Abraham and Mary Todd’s oldest son, Robert Todd Lincoln, died at the age of 82 after a distinguished public career.[129]  Having served three presidents as assistant secretary of state, secretary of war, and ambassador to the United Kingdom, Robert Todd was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.[130]

July 27-August 2

One-hundred and seventy-two years ago this week, on August 1, 1836, Abraham Lincoln was elected to his second of four terms in the Illinois State legislature.[131]  In 1836, Lincoln had served as the Whig floor leader and chairman of the Finance Committee.[132]  Seven years later, on August 1, 1843, Abraham and Mary Todd Lincoln’s first son — Robert Todd Lincoln — was born at the Globe Tavern in Springfield, Illinois.[133]

On July 27, 1861, in the wake of the First Battle of Bull Run, President Abraham Lincoln ordered General George McClellan to the White House to secure the capital, and gave him command of the Army of the Potomac.[134]  Three years later on August 1, 1864 — with McClellan relieved of command and a rival for the presidency — Lincoln arrived at Fortress Monroe to strategize with his General-in-Chief, Ulysses S. Grant.[135]

August 3-9

One-hundred and seventy-six years ago this week, on August 6, 1832, Abraham Lincoln completed a campaign for the Illinois legislature while at the same time serving in military campaigns during the Black Hawk War.  Lincoln finished eighth in a field of thirteen candidates.[136]  Two years later, on August 4, 1834, Lincoln won in his second campaign for public office, earning a seat in the Illinois House of Representatives with 64 percent of the Sangamon County vote.[137]  Lincoln went on to serve four terms in the state legislature, during which he vigorously supported a Whig agenda for improved transportation and infrastructure, and the creation of a state bank.[138]

On August 3, 1846, Lincoln was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives over Reverend Peter Cartwright by an unprecedented majority.[139]  During his single term, Lincoln served on the Post Office and Post Roads Committee and the War Department Expenditures Committee, and he famously opposed the Mexican War and President James K. Polk’s wartime leadership.[140]

On August 5, 1861, President Abraham Lincoln established the first-ever federal income tax when he signed the Revenue Act.[141]  On August 9, 1862, Lincoln ordered the draft of 300,000 militia into service of the Union Army.[142]

August 10-16

One-hundred and fifty-six years ago this week, on August 14, 1852, Abraham Lincoln — by now a former state legislator and former U.S. congressman — began campaigning on behalf of General Winfield Scott’s candidacy for president.[143]  Lincoln’s first stump speech lasted so long that stretched over two meetings of the Scott Club of Springfield — one on August 14, the other on August 26.[144]  Scott was the last Whig Party contender for the U.S. presidency; by 1856 Lincoln lined up behind the newly formed Republican Party and the candidacy of John C. Fremont.[145]

Nine years later, on August 16, 1861, Abraham Lincoln — the first Republican president of the United States — issued a proclamation declaring:

that the inhabitants of the said States of Georgia, South Carolina, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Florida … are in a state of insurrection against the United States, and that all commercial intercourse between the same and the inhabitants thereof … and the citizens of other States and other parts of the United States is unlawful, and will remain unlawful until such insurrection shall cease or has been suppressed….[146]

The next year, on August 11, 1862, President Lincoln appointed Henry Halleck general-in-chief of all Union land forces.[147]  The appointment signaled a repudiation of Lincoln’s then-leading general and future presidential rival George McClellan.[148]

August 17-23

One-hundred and fifty-nine years ago this week, on August 21, 1849, former Congressman Abraham Lincoln declined an appointment by President Zachary Taylor to the secretaryship of the Oregon Territory.[149]

One-hundred and fifty years ago, on August 21, 1858, Lincoln took on Senator Stephen A. Douglas in the first of their seven famous senatorial debates at Ottawa, Illinois.[150]  More than 10,000 people attended the three-hour debate over the morality and spread of slavery.[151]  At Ottawa, Lincoln stated the core of his argument:

I have never said anything to the contrary, but I hold that, notwithstanding all this, there is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.  I hold that he is as much entitled to these as the white man.  I agree with Judge Douglas he is not my equal in many respects — certainly not in color, perhaps not in moral or intellectual endowment.  But in the right to eat the bread, without the leave of anybody else, which his own hand earns, he is my equal and the equal of Judge Douglas, and the equal of every living man.[152]

However, one year after the Civil War erupted over the slavery issue, President Abraham Lincoln — on August 22, 1862 — wrote to newspaper editor Horace Greeley that:

My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or destroy slavery.  If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that.[153]

August 24-30

One-hundred and seventy-three years ago this week, on August 25, 1835, Abraham Lincoln’s first sweetheart — Ann Rutledge — died of typhoid at the Rutledge farm in New Salem, Illinois.[154]  Eighteen years later, on August 27, 1853, the new town of Lincoln, in Logan County Illinois, was named for the 45-year-old lawyer by the proprieters Latham, Gillette, and Hickox.[155]  Lincoln christened the new town with juice from a watermelon.[156]

On August 27, 1856, Abraham Lincoln made his first and only speech in the state of Michigan.  He spoke against the extension of slavery in the United States and on behalf of John C. Fremont — the first Republican Party nominee for president — in Kalamzoo.[157]  Two years later, on August 27, 1858, Lincoln contended with Stephen A. Douglas in their second senatorial debate in Freeport, Illinois.[158]

August 31-September 6

One-hundred and ninety-three years ago this week, on September 1, 1815, Abraham and Sarah Lincoln began attending school, taught by Zacharia Riney.[159]  Lincoln, who attended Riney’s school for several weeks and learned to read and write, later estimated that altogether he had only one year of formal education.[160]  Sixteen years later, on September 1, 1831, Lincoln began as a clerk in Denton Offutt’s general store in New Salem, Illinois, earning $15 a month.[161]

On September 2, 1862, in the wake of the Civil War’s Second Battle of Bull Run, President Abraham Lincoln — fearing an imminent Confederate attack on capitol — placed General George B. McClellan in command of the entire Union Army and ordered him to “take command of the forces in Washington.”[162]  Two years later,  on September 1st and 2nd, 1864, General William T. Sherman captured and occupied Atlanta — one of the greatest Confederate industrial centers.[163]  Sherman’s victory couldn’t have come at a better time, as Peace Democrats and their presidential nominee — former General George McClellan — tried to persuade the American people that a change in leadership was needed.[164]

September 7-13

One-hundred and seventy-two years ago this week, on September 9, 1836, recently re-elected Illinois state legislator Abraham Lincoln was licensed to practice law in the state in Illinois.[165]  Twelve years later, on September 12, 1848, U.S. Congressman Lincoln and his family departed on a ten-day tour of New England, during which he delivered stump speeches in Boston, New Bedford, Lowell, Dedham, and Taunton — among other places — in support of Whig Presidential candidate Zachary Taylor.[166]

On September 11, 1861, President Abraham Lincoln ordered General John C. Fremont to modify his unauthorized emancipation proclamation in the state of Missouri to conform to the Confiscation Act.[167]  The decision angered radical Republicans and abolitionists, but it went a long way in preserving for the Union the allegiance of slave-holding border states.[168]

September 14-20

One-hundred and fifty years ago this week, on September 15, 1858, Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas squared off in their third senatorial debate, this time in Jonesboro, Illinois.[169]  Three days later, on September 18, 1858, they met again and debated in Charleston, Illinois.[170]  In Charleston, Lincoln famously denied supporting equality for blacks:

I am not, nor ever have been in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races, — that I am not nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people….  I say upon this occasion I do not perceive that because the white man is to have the superior position the negro should be denied everything.  I do not understand that because I do not want a negro woman for a slave I must necessarily want her for a wife.  My understanding is that I can just let her alone….  I will add to this that I have never seen to my knowledge a man, woman or child who was in favor  of 

producing a perfect equality, social and political, between negroes and white men.[171]

On September 17, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln received news that Union General George McClellan had turned back General Robert E. Lee and his Confederate Army at Antietam.[172]  The battle was the culmination of Lee’s first invasion of the North — an invasion that included a Confederate victory at Second Bull Run — and it became the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, resulting in 23,000 killed or wounded soldiers.[173]  According to historian James McPherson, after the battle,

Night fell on a scene of horror beyond imagining.  Nearly 6,000 men lay dead or dying, and another 17,000 wounded groaned in agony or endured in silence.  The casualties at Antietam numbered four times the total suffered by American soldiers at the Normandy beaches on June 6, 1944.  More than twice as many Americans lost their lives in one day at Sharpsburg as fell in combat in the War of 1812, the Mexican War, and the Spanish-American war combined.[174]

The Union victory, though not overwhelming, convinced Lincoln that the time was approaching to issue his long-delayed emancipation proclamation.[175]

September 21-27

One-hundred and sixty-six years ago this week, on September 22, 1842, Abraham Lincoln and James Shields met on a dueling ground at Alton, Missouri.[176]  The two, who had had a public encounter over a letter to the editor of the Sangamo Journal and an insulting note, were set to duel using weapons of Lincoln’s choosing — broadswords.[177]  Friends interved to stop the fight.  “I did not intend to hurt Shields unless I did so clearly in self-defense,” Lincoln later said.  “If it had been necessary I could have split him from the crown of his head to the end of his backbone.”[178]

On September 22, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln read to his cabinet and issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, freeing the slaves of Confederate states, effective January 1, 1863.[179]  “I can only trust in God I have made no mistake,” Lincoln told a crowd outside the White House the next day.  “It is now for the country and the world to pass judgment on it.”[180]

Two days later, on September 24, 1862, President Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus throughout the country, allowing for the arbitrary arrest of any person “guilty of any disloyal practice, affording aid and comfort to Rebels against the authority of the United States.”[181]

September 28-October 4

One-hundred and sixty-four years ago this week, on October 1, 1844, Abraham Lincoln departed on a weeks-long trip across Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, to stump for his political hero Henry Clay’s presidential candidacy.[182]  He was so effective on the stump that an Illinois colleague called him “the best stump speaker in the state.”[183]

On October 1, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln visited General George McClellan at the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac near Antietam, where the bloodiest single-day battle in American history had occurred two weeks earlier.[184]  With the visit, Lincoln hoped to inspire the general to further action by urging him to discard his “over-cautiousness.”[185]  On October 3, 1863, Lincoln proclaimed the first national observance of Thanksgiving, to be held on November 26.[186]


[1] Douglas L. Wilson, Honor’s Voice: The Transformation of Abraham Lincoln (New York: Vintage Books, 1998), p. 227.

[2] James D. Richardson, ed., A Compilation of the Messsages and Papers of the Presidents (Washington, D.C.: Bureau of National Literature, 1897), p. 3298.

[3] Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years, v. 1 (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1926), p. 170.

[4] Allen C. Guelzo, Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1999), p. 140.

[5] Doris Kearns Goodwin, Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), p. 411.

[6] Douglas L. Wilson and Rodney O. Davis, eds., Herndon’s Lincoln (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2006), pp. 77-78.

[7] Kenneth J. Winkle, The Young Eagle: The Rise of Abraham Lincoln (Dallas: Taylor Trade Publishing, 2001), pp. 221-22.

[8] David Herbert Donald, Lincoln (New York: Touchstone, 1996), p. 153.

[9] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 411.

[10] Sandburg, Prairie Years I, p. 51.

[11] Guelzo, Redeemer President, pp. 359-60.

[12] Donald, Lincoln, p. 153.

[13] Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years, v. 2 (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1926), pp. 416-17.

[14] Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln: The War Years, v. 1 (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1939), p. 420.

[15] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, pp. 689-90.

[16] Sandburg, Prairie Years II, pp. 19-20.

[17] Guelzo, Redeemer President, p. 262.

[18] James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (New York: Ballantine, 1989), p. 397.

[19] Donald, Lincoln, pp. 555-60.

[20] Donald, Lincoln, p. 22.

[21] Wilson, Honor’s Voice, p. 154.

[22] Wilson & Davis, Herndon’s Lincoln, p. 291.

[23] John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters, The American Presidency Project [online]. Santa Barbara, CA: University of California (hosted), Gerhard Peters (database). Available from World Wide Web: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=69792.

[24] Donald, Lincoln, pp. 189-90.

[25] Sean Wilentz, The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2005), pp. 679-80.

[26] Sandburg, War Years I, pp. 75-76.

[27] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 419.

[28] Thomas Harry Williams, Lincoln and the Radicals (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1941), p. 311.

[29] Winkle, Young Eagle, p. 11.

[30] Donald, Lincoln, p. 37.

[31] Harold Holzer, Lincoln At Cooper Union: The Speech That Made Abraham Lincoln President (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004), p. 232.

[32] Holzer, Cooper Union, p. 177.

[33] David Herbert Donald and Harold Holzer,ed., Lincoln in the Times: The Life of Abraham Lincoln as Originally Reported in the New York Times (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2005), pp 158-61.


[34] Richardson, ed., Papers of the Presidents, p. 3213.


[35] Richardson, ed., Papers of the Presidents, p. 3478.

[36] Winkle, Young Eagle, p. 81.


[37] Winkle, Young Eagle, p. 279.


[38] Jean Edward Smith, Grant (New York : Simon & Schuster, 2001) pp. 284-290.
[39] Donald, Lincoln, pp. 38-39.


[40] Nicolay to Bates, 20 March 1861, John G. Nicolay Papers, Library of Congress, Washington D.C.

[41] Wilson, Honor’s Voice, p. 107.

[42] Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln: The War Years, v. 4 (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1939), p. 139.

[43] Sandburg, War Years IV, p. 157.

[44] Wilson & Davis, Herndon’s Lincoln, p. 59.

[45] Ibid., p. 60.

[46] Donald, Lincoln, p. 154.

[47] Sandburg, War Years I, p. 486.

[48] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 513.

[49] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, pp. 717-19.

[50] Daniel Farber, Lincoln’s Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), p. 7.

[51] McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 413.

[52] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 725.

[53] Teaching American History, “Last Public Address by Abraham Lincoln,” Teaching American History, http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=1099.

[54] Donald, Lincoln, p. 66.

[55] Ibid.

[56] Richardson, ed., Papers of the Presidents, p. 3214.

[57] Richardson, ed., Papers of the Presidents, p. 3215.

[58] Richardson, ed., Papers of the Presidents, p. 3274.

[59] Donald, Lincoln, pp. 597-99.

[60] Winkle, Young Eagle, p. 90.

[61] Ibid.

[62] Sandburg, War Years IV, p. 388.

[63] Sandburg, War Years IV, p. 387.

[64] Winkle, Young Eagle, p. 221.

[65] Farber, Lincoln’s Constitution, p. 17.

[66] Farber, Lincoln’s Constitution, p. 18.

[67] Sandburg, War Years IV, p. 388.

[68] Donald and Holzer,ed., Lincoln in the Times, p 365.

[69] Winkle, Young Eagle, p. 112.

[70] Encyclopedia Britannica, “John Wilkes Booth,” Encyclopedia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/73713/John-Wilkes-Booth.

[71] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 436.

[72] McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 645.

[73] McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 726.

[74] Donald and Holzer,ed., Lincoln in the Times, pp. 367-70.

[75] McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 853.

[76] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 239.

[77] Donald, Lincoln, p. 320.

[78] Donald, Lincoln, p. 424.

[79] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, pp. 248-49.


80] Ibid.

[81] McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 450.

[82] McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 451.

[83] Donald, Lincoln, p. 168.

[84] Sandburg, Prairie Years II, pp. 26-29.
[85] Ibid.


[86] Sandburg, War Years III, p.648.

[87] William A. DeGregorio, The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents (New York: Barnes & Noble, 2004, p. 339.
[88] Donald, Lincoln, p. 127.
[89] Donald, Lincoln, p. 126.
[90] Richard J. Carwardine, Lincoln: Profiles in Power (Harlow, England: Pearson Longman, 2003), p. 162.
[91] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, pp. 623-25.
[92] The Law Practice of Abraham Lincoln, “Scammon v. Cline,” http://www.lawpracticeofabrahamlincoln.org/externalResults.aspx?L02484.
[93] Donald, Lincoln, p. 193.
[94] Donald, Lincoln, p. 156.
[95] Don E. Fehrenbacher, ed., Lincoln: Speeches and Writings, 1832-1858 (New York: Library of America, 1989), pp. 426-34.
[96] Fehrenbacher, ed., Speeches and Writings, p. 426.
[97] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 629.
[98] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 631.

[99] Donald, Lincoln, p. 201.


[100] Ibid.

[101] Donald, Lincoln, p. 361.

[102] Donald, Lincoln, pp. 357-58.

[103] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, pp. 531-32.

[104] Sandburg, War Years IV, p. 5.

[105] Guelzo, Redeemer President, p. 331.

[106] Farber, Lincoln’s Constitution, p. 117.

[107] Farber, Lincoln’s Constitution, p. 118.

[108] McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 491.

[109] Thomas J. DiLorenzo, The Real Lincoln: A New Look at Abraham Lincoln, His Agenda, and an Unnecessary War (New York: Three Rivers Press, 2002), p. 255.

[110] DeGregorio, Complete Book, p. 240.

[111] Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, ed., The Reader’s Companion to American History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991), p. 750.

[112] McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 663.

[113] Smith, Grant, p. 256.

[114] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 639.

[115] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 635.

[116] Fehrenbacher, ed., Speeches and Writings, p. 259.

[117] Fehrenbacher, ed., Speeches and Writings, p. 272.

[118] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 450-52.

[119] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 452-53.

[120] Donald, Lincoln, pp. 518-19

[121] Donald, Lincoln, p. 519.

[122] Ibid.

[123] Donald, Lincoln, p. 364.

[124] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 756-58.

[125] H. Donald Winkler, Lincoln’s Ladies: The Women in the Life of the Sixteenth President (Nashville: Cumberland House Publishing, 2004), p. 215.

[126] Fehrenbacher, ed., Speeches and Writings, pp. 247-55.

[127] Donald, Lincoln, p. 307.

[128] Ibid.

[129] DeGregorio, Complete Book, p. 227.

[130] Ibid.

[131] Donald, Lincoln, p. 60.

[132] DeGregorio, Complete Book, p. 231.

[133] Donald, Lincoln, p. 95.

[134] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, pp. 377-78.

[135] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 646.

[136] Winkle, Young Eagle, p. 95.

[137] Winkle, Young Eagle, p. 115.

[138] DeGregorio, Complete Book, p. 230.

[139] Donald, Lincoln, p. 115.

[140] DeGregorio, Complete Book, p. 231.

[141] http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=50716.

[142] Jeffry D. Wert, The Sword of Lincoln: The Army of the Potomac (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), p. 129.

[143] Fehrenbacher, ed., Speeches and Writings, pp. 273-97.

[144] Ibid.

[144] James M. McPherson, “To the Best of My Ability”: American Presidents (New York: Dorling Kindersley, 2000), p. 360.

[146] http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=69990&st=&st1=

[147] Donald, Lincoln, p. 361.

[148] Ibid.

[149] DeGregorio, Complete Book, p. 231.

[150] Donald, Lincoln, pp. 214-15.

[151] Ibid.

[152] Fehrenbacher, ed., Speeches and Writings, pp. 512.

[153] Donald, Lincoln, p. 368.

[154] Donald, Lincoln, p. 57.

[155] http://www.lincolnstudies.com/?p=397

[156] Ibid.

[157] Thomas I. Starr, ed. Lincoln’s Kalamazoo Address Against Extending Slavery. (Detroit: Fine Book Circle, 1941).

[158] Fehrenbacher, ed., Speeches and Writings, pp. 537.

[159] Donald, Lincoln, p. 23.

[160] DeGregorio, Complete Book, p. 228.

[161] DeGregorio, Complete Book, p. 230.

[162] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, pp. 478-79.

[163] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, pp. 654-56.

[164] Ibid.

[165] Donald, Lincoln, p. 64.

[166] Donald, Lincoln, pp. 131-32.

[167] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 392.

[168] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 393.

[169] Fehrenbacher, ed., Speeches and Writings, pp. 586.

[170] Fehrenbacher, ed., Speeches and Writings, pp. 636.

[171] Ibid.

[172] Donald, Lincoln, p. 374.

[173] McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 544.

[174] Ibid.

[175] Donald, Lincoln, p. 374.

[176] Donald, Lincoln, p. 92.

[177] Ibid.

[178] Ibid.

[179] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 481.

[180] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 482.

[181] Donald, Lincoln, p. 380.

[182] Guelzo, Redeemer President, p. 113.

[183] Donald, Lincoln, p. 112.

[184] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, p. 484.

[185] Ibid.

[186] Donald, Lincoln, p. 471.

[187] Donald, Lincoln, p. 258.

[188] Ibid.

[189] Goodwin, Team of Rivals, pp. 380-81.